two types of macroevolution does not imply that they share similar identities. Therefore, the paleontological data do not contradict the idea that the evolution of biodiversity can be influenced by positive feedbacks mediated by the hierarchical structure of the biota. For example, the optimum values of diversity at the population and community levels depend on environmental instability in an opposite manner: optimum species diversity increases in more stable environments, but the optimum intra-population diversity decreases. This concept was developed as a counterpart to the notion of biological aromorphosis, which is well established within Russian evolutionary biology. Among them is a place called Udabno (this name means desert) where the fragments of primate were discovered, which have been attributed to the group of Dryopithecus (age 8 million years). A social organism can evolve as a result of the conscious activities of social agents within this social organism who purposefully aim to achieve such an evolutionary transformation. Darlington called everyones attention for the fact that local communities are functionally converging. One may single out at least three fundamental sets of factors which determine these similarities. What could be a proper analogy for a species the main unit and level of biological evolution? In regions with a highly contrasting and mosaic character, all developments became rapid. This means that if the prokaryotic were universal, then higher eukaryotes would evolve 16 orders of magnitude slower than prokaryotes, that is, during the 4 billion years of life existence one would never observe a single act of speciation in higher organisms.
It seems that we should look for some non-accidental causes of anthropogenesis which would give birth to hominids in the same time and at the same place even if the Eastside Story had not happened. The base of it was change of lifestyle of mans closest ancestors - ancient highly organized monkeys, which meant their descent from trees to the ground in connection with dying out of timber plants. 29: 119; Gorshkov. Of course there are a few rather important (easily understandable) differences between them. Senior research fellow of Volgograd Center for Social Studies, Russia Bystrova., Volgograd tel./ fax: (8442) e-mail: Markov, Alexander.,. Paleontological Institute RAS, leading researcher, gSP Moscow, Profsoyuznaya., 123 tel.: e-mail: Paleontological Data Imply the Existence of Positive Feedbacks in the Evolution of Biodiversity. This is in strong disagreement with the observed gross constancy of speciation rates (several million years for all taxa, deviations from that value being independent of the population size). Most probably, due to stimulative impact of cold, apes became very active in the struggle for existence at that period and in due course developed into a modern man. Of geological-mineralogical science Chairman of Scientific council of the Caucasus Institute of Mineral Products 0162 Tbilisi, Paliashvili., 85 tel.: (822) ; 37 67 38; ; fax: e-mail: Suladze, Aslan.,. RNA Viruses as Generators of Novel Genetic Information and Drivers of Speciation in the Biosphere. 2, building 3,. Tel.: e-mail: ; The Principle of Optimum Diversity in Biological and Social Systems We propose the principle of optimum diversity for biological systems above the organism level (populations and ecological communities).
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